The record temperatures are spawned from desert air traveling from the African continent, which has brought excessive heat from Algeria to the Arctic Circle. Several other countries, including Finland and Iran, also have experienced new monthly temperature highs.
The heat wave is the latest in a series of extraordinary heat events in the region this year and one of several tormenting the Northern Hemisphere at present — a sign of human-caused climate change. Rising global temperatures have increased the frequency and intensity of heat extremes in these regions since the 1950s, according to the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
A dip in the jet stream — an upper-level channel of air — has allowed intense heat to build farther northward than usual.
The jet stream divides hot continental air across southern Europe from fresher Atlantic air currently across the UK.
As a result temperatures across the UK have been close the seasonal normal but across parts of Italy they have reached 40 °C yesterday 🌡️📈 pic.twitter.com/jFyjuwM4Vk
— Met Office (@metoffice) June 28, 2022
A powerful heat dome anchored over Eastern Europe is conspiring with low pressure over Western Europe to yank extreme heat off Africa and into the region. A zone of surface high pressure from Italy to northwestern Russia and Finland is squashing clouds, allowing the near-solstice sun to beat down in all its fury.
On the edge of the heat, severe weather struck the Netherlands and Germany.
One person died and 10 were injured as a twister tore through the coastal city of Zierikzee, to the southwest of Rotterdam, in the Netherlands. The tornado caused damage on par with a low-end twister in the United States. Although the Netherlands averages several tornadoes a year, this was the first to cause a death since 1992.
To the south and east of there, numerous reports of hail — some up to 3 inches wide — came in from Germany. Additional severe weather was anticipated across northern Italy and surrounding areas late Thursday as a cold front sinks into the area.
Expansive area of records
Record-high temperatures were registered from Tunisia to northern Norway on Monday and Tuesday. While the heart of the sweltering weather was arguably in and around Italy, temperatures 15 to 35 degrees above normal covered much of Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean and back into North Africa.
Exceptional and record breaking heat from North Africa to Norway. Unbearably hot around the central Mediterranean especially.
Note the split in temperature in Europe with relatively cool air in the west. Intense thunderstorms can be found along the strong thermal boundary. pic.twitter.com/DAHz2tv6VC
— Scott Duncan (@ScottDuncanWX) June 27, 2022
Rome rose to 105 degrees, a record for June and tied for the hottest recorded. Just outside the city, temperatures as high as 110 degrees were recorded at Tor Vergata.
Other June record highs set Monday in Italy included Tuscany with 107 degrees, Florence at 106 degrees, Viterbo (also an all-time high) with 105 degrees and Naples at 100 degrees.
Drought has hit the northern region of the country, where a dried-up Po River is affecting farming, hydroelectric power and drinking water supplies. Milan recently announced that it would turn off all its fountains, among other water-saving measures, because of the record drought. It is among more than 100 towns and cities there to enact water restrictions.
A shrinking Po River and brown fields are visible in this animation showing the area near the city of Piacenza, #Italy.
All images were taken by the @CopernicusEU #Sentinel2 mission in June 2020, 2021 and 2022.
The effects of the current heatwave and drought are striking 🌡️ pic.twitter.com/miyCIkvpvI
— ESA EarthObservation (@ESA_EO) June 27, 2022
Drought and extreme heat events in the Mediterranean have been stronger in recent decades, which has been attributed to an increase in global temperatures. Surface temperature in the Mediterranean is about 2.7 degrees (1.5 Celsius) above the preindustrial number, corresponding to an increase in high-temperature extreme events.
A study released Tuesday found that the Mediterranean and northern Africa are expected to see large increases in the frequency of drought days. By 2065, drought days could make up more than 50 percent of the dry season in those regions if greenhouse gas emissions are not significantly curbed.
On the northern edge of the heat wave, Scandinavia hit record highs Monday. Saltdal, Norway, reached 89 degrees, a June record for that city. To the southeast, in Vihti Maasoja, Finland, the temperature hit a June record of 89 degrees.
Readings approached 121 degrees in Tunisia, only a short distance from June records.
The unprecedented June heat continued Tuesday across Eastern Europe, western Russia and parts of Scandinavia. Locations on Norway’s Arctic coast of the Barents and Norwegian seas — like Andoya and Berlavag — have broken June and, in some cases, all-time records, with highs in an 85-to-90-degree zone.
Norway’s largest port city, Tromso which sits north of the Arctic Circle, reached at least 85 degrees, a record for June.
In Finland, coastal locations recorded unusually toasty overnight temperatures, with Tuesday morning lows setting records over a wide swath thanks in part to very warm water in the Gulf of Finland as well as large lakes in the surrounding region. Porvoo Kalbadagrund, about 30 miles northeast of Helsinki, never fell below 73 degrees, which would be a June record for the country.
One of several big heat waves globally
A wavy jet stream has helped contribute to significant heat waves in several parts of the Northern Hemisphere. In between the dips of the jet stream, relatively stable bubbles of hot air are able to bake the landscape.
Japan remains in the midst of an unprecedented June heat wave.
“A total of 263 June record highs have been set in six days,” meteorologist Sayaka Mori wrote. “Tokyo had highs of over [95 degrees] for four days in a row, making it the first time on record for June.”
It’s possible that even hotter weather is on the way for Japan. There is some potential for the country experiencing its hottest day on record in the coming days.
Temperatures in recent days have risen to record-high levels in parts of Central Asia and into China, as well. Iran is experiencing one of its hottest June days on record Tuesday. Another sphere of extreme heat has been blasting the Pacific Northwest and adjacent southeastern Canada, as well as parts of Alaska, including its northernmost city of Utqiagvik.
This is also on the heels of historic June heat in Western Europe, particularly Spain, France and Germany. The record heat sparked wildfires in Spain. Italy and surrounding countries were also blasted by a heat wave in May.
India and Pakistan also experienced record heat in March and April, which researchers found were 30 times as likely to occur because of climate change.
Research shows climate change is exacerbating weather patterns responsible for these extreme and long-lasting heat events. Global warming also makes generational-type heat waves more common, perhaps occurring as often as every few years in any one spot.
Kasha Patel contributed to this report.